Knowledge Base

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Phenotyping with the Thermo Scientific Delta Ray IRIS 

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany


  • TIMS
  • Triton XT

TRITON XT Thermal Ionization MS Brochure

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany


Goal: A new edition of the market leading Thermo Scientific™
Triton™ Series TIMS, capturing the best of technology for
high-precision isotope ratio analysis.

  • Neptune XT

NEPTUNE XT Multicollector ICPMS Brochure

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany


Goal: A new edition of the market leading Thermo Scientific™
Neptune™ Series MC-ICP-MS, capturing the best of
technology for high-precision isotope ratio analysis.

  • IRMS
  • 253Plus
  • Kiel IV
  • Clumped Isotopes

Penultimate deglacial warming across the Mediterranean Sea revealed by clumped isotopes in foraminifera

L. Rodríguez-Sanz (1), S. M. Bernasconi (2), G. Marino (1,3), D. Heslop (1), I. A. Müller (2), A. Fernandez (2), K. M. Grant (1), E. J. Rohling (1,4)

1) Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; 2) Geological Institute, ETH Zürich, Switzerland; 3) University of Vigo, Spain; 4) Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK

Scientific Reports (2017), V7: 16572, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-16528-6

Goal: Here we advance the understanding of Mediterranean hydrographic variability through the penultimate glacial termination (TII) and last interglacial, by applying the clumped isotope (Δ47) paleothermometer to
planktic foraminifera with a novel data-processing approach.

  • IRMS
  • 253Plus
  • Kiel IV
  • Clumped Isotopes

A Reassessment of the Precision of Carbonate Clumped Isotope Measurements: Implications for Calibrations and Paleoclimate Reconstructions

Alvaro Fernandez (1), Inigo A. Müller (1), Laura Rodríguez-Sanz (2) , Joep van Dijk (1), Nathan Looser (1), Stefano M. Bernasconi (1)

1) Geological Institute, ETH Zürich, Switzerland; 2) Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia

Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (2017), V18, DOI: org/10.1002/2017GC007106

Goal: Carbonate clumped isotopes offer a potentially transformational tool to interpret Earth’s history, but the proxy is still limited by poor interlaboratory reproducibility. Here, we focus on the uncertainties
that result from the analysis of only a few replicate measurements to understand the extent to which unconstrained errors affect calibration relationships and paleoclimate reconstructions.

  • Clumped Isotopes

13C18O16O in air

John M. Eiler, Edwin Schauble and Nami Kitchen

CalTech, USA

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2003), V67 (18), ppA86-A86, ISSN 0016-7037

Goal: The atmospheric budget of CO2 is constrained by its concentration, δ13C and δ18O. However, these are insufficient to resolve source and sink processes, which vary complexly in flux and/or isotope signature. There are twelve stable isotopologues of CO2, each of which has unique thermodynamic and kinetic properties and could offer unique constraints on the budget.

  • IRMS
  • HPLC
  • Carbon isotopes
  • Honey Adulteration

Improved detection of honey adulteration by measuring differences between 13C/12C stable carbon isotope ratios of protein and sugar compounds with a combination of elemental analyzer - isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry ( 13C-EA/LC-IRMS) 

Lutz Elflein, Kurt-Peter Raezke

APPLICA GmbH - Applied Chemical Analysis, Olof-Palme-Str. 8, 28719 Bremen, Germany

Apidologie (2008), V39(5), pp 574-587, doi: 10.1051/apido:2008042

Goal: The detection of honey adulteration with invert sugar syrups from various C3 and C4 plant sources was realized by coupling an isotope ratio mass spectrometer both to an elemental analyzer and to a liquid chromatograph (EA/LC-IRMS). For 451 authentic honeys measured, the individual δ13C values of bulk honey, its protein fraction, fructose, glucose, and di- and trisaccharides ranged from –22.5 to –28.2 permil and did not show differences (Δδ13C) of more than +/-0.9 permil (average), with a maximum standard deviation of 0.7 permil. The Δδ13C (fructose – glucose) value was significantly lower (0+/- 0.3 permil). The newly developed EA/LC-IRMS method and the purity criteria defined represent a significant improvement compared to existing methods.

  • Bone Collagen

Comparison of liquid chromatography–isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) and gas chromatography–combustion– isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) for the determination of collagen amino acid d13C values for palaeodietary and palaeoecological reconstruction

Philip J. H. Dunn, Noah V. Honch and Richard P. Evershed

Organic Geochemistry Unit, Bristol Biogeochemistry Research Center, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock’s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK

Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry (2011), V25, pp2995–3011, doi: 10.1002/rcm.5174

Goal: Results are presented of a comparison of the amino acid (AA) delta13C values obtained by gas chromatography- combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) and liquid chromatography- isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS). Although the primary focus was the compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of bone collagen AAs, because of its growing application for palaeodietary and palaeoecological reconstruction, the results are relevant to any field where AA delta13C values are required. We compare LC/IRMS with the most up-to-date GC/C/IRMS method using N-acetyl methyl ester (NACME) AA derivatives.

  • IRIS
  • Delta Ray
  • Photosynthetic Pathway
  • Carbon Isotopes

Carbon isotope ratios during plant gas exchange: Insights in the photosynthetic pathway and respiratory substrate

Benjamin Birami (1), Ines Bamberger (1), Andreas Gast (1), Nadine K. Ruehr (1), Magda Mandic (2)

1) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research - Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany; 2) Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany


Goal: This note describes and identifies both short-term and long-term changes in plant metabolism using Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometry.

  • IRMS
  • Delta V
  • GasBench II
  • Isotope Fingerprint
  • Wine

GasBench II System: Tracking wine adulteration using oxygen isotope fingerprints

Jens Radke and Christopher Brodie

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany


Goal: This note demonstrate that wine adulteration by addition of water can be tracked using oxygen isotope fingerprints.

  • IRIS
  • Delta Ray
  • Plant Phenotyping
  • Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

Online 13C18O2 analysis with IRIS for nondestructive plant phenotyping for water use efficiency in sugar beet

Mehmet Senbayram (1), Christoph Bauer (2), Magda Mandic (3)

1) Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, University of Harran, SanliUrfa, Turkey; 2) KWS SAAT SE, Einbeck, Germany; 3) Thermo Fisher Scientific, Germany, Bremen


Goal: This note presents a new phenotyping strategy in which whole plant physiology and plant physiology processes are considered using Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometry.

  • TIMS
  • Triton Plus
  • 10^13 ohm amplifier technology

Smart Note: 10^13 Ω amplifier technology: How low can you go?

Hauke Vollstaedt, Grant Craig, Nicholas Lloyd, Johannes Schwieters and Claudia Bouman

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany


Goal: Faraday cups connected to Thermo Scientific™ 10^13 Ω amplifier technology overcome the limitations of sequential single collector measurements by enabling low noise 100% duty cycle static multicollector measurements of low intensity ion beams.

  • IRMS
  • Isotope Fingerprints
  • Forensics

Smart Note: How do isotope fingerprints support forensic investigations?

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany


Goal: Forensic investigations examine sample materials to determine how similar or different they are, or to identify the origin of the material. Identifying the difference in a material or where it comes from can be achieved because materials have a unique che

  • Neptune Plus
  • mass resolving power
  • mass resolution
  • Si, Mg, Cl, K
  • hydride

Extra High Resolution Option for MC-ICP-MS

Nicholas Lloyd, Grant Craig, Claudia Bouman and Johannes Schwieters

Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany


Goal: The most challenging interferences to resolve are from hydrides, and these can affect high-precision isotope ratio measurements of Si, Mg, Cl and K. The new Thermo Scientific™ XHR™ Extra High Resolution Option is tailored for resolving hydride interferenc